In previous articles I identified several challenges of current public crypto-networks, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, that make them difficult to scale. These challenges include their two-tier de-centralized design[1], their leader-based consensus mechanism, their smart contract inefficiencies, their application model, and several other design choices.

In this article I address the method used by most current crypto-networks to store blockchain information. This includes all the transactions in the blockchain history and all other information that is stored on behalf of blockchain…